Laser technology has important applications in the fields of information, manufacturing (electronics, semiconductors, machinery, automobiles, airplanes and other manufacturing industries), military, intelligent identification and medical instruments, especially laser micromachining to ordinary micromachining Presents a huge challenge. With the further development of laser technology and the continuous expansion of the market, optical manufacturing technology will replace traditional mechanical manufacturing in all manufacturing fields. Laser micro-manufacturing technology makes micro-precision components possible and makes micro-systems diversified and intelligent The direction of development will eventually be more widely used in the fields of automobiles, medical care and environmental protection, and it will play an increasingly important role in the development of the national economy and industry. The core content of the typical application of laser in mechanical manufacturing is introduced below.
2. The application of laser in heat treatment
Laser heat treatment technology is a new type of material surface treatment technology developed in the past two decades. In recent years, the manufacturing technology of high-power lasers and auxiliary equipment has improved day by day, and various surface treatment technologies have become more and more mature. Application and in-depth research are extremely active.
The principle of laser heat treatment technology is based on the extremely strong penetrating ability of laser. When the surface of the metal is heated to the critical transformation temperature only lower than the melting point, the surface is rapidly austenitized, and then rapidly self-cooling and quenching, the metal surface is rapidly strengthened. That is, laser transformation hardening.
Laser heat treatment technology can solve material strengthening problems that other surface treatment methods cannot solve or are difficult to solve. After laser treatment, the surface strength of the cast layer can reach HRC60 degrees or more, and the surface hardness of medium and high carbon steels and alloy steels can reach HRC70 degrees or more, thereby improving its wear resistance, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, and oxidation resistance. Extend its service life.
3. Application of laser in welding
Laser welding is one of the important aspects of the application of laser material processing technology. This technology has a narrow heat-affected zone, small welds, no protective atmosphere required for atmospheric pressure, no X-rays, and no beam deviation in a magnetic field. Features, coupled with its fast welding speed, no mechanical contact with the workpiece, can weld magnetic materials, especially high melting point materials and dissimilar metals, and does not require additional materials, so it quickly realized industrialization in the electronics industry. The use of solid YAG lasers for seam welding and spot welding abroad has reached a very high level. In addition, laser welding of the lead wires of the printed circuit does not require the use of flux, and can reduce thermal shock without affecting the circuit die. Since the 1990s, Japan has realized the transition from spot welding to laser welding in precision welding in the electronics industry. At present, the application of laser deep penetration welding in the field of powder metallurgy material processing is also increasing.
In short, compared with ordinary welding methods, laser deep penetration welding has the advantages of fast welding speed, large weld aspect ratio, small heat-affected zone and thermal deformation, high weld strength, and easy automation. Therefore, it is widely used in industry. application.